# Courses

**Wybór języka polskiego**

Kliknij w nagłówku “**Polski**“**Note **Sometimes Google Translator turns on intrusively. If you don’t want to translate into languages other than English and Polish, turn it off.

The portal contains **9 courses** related to** automatics**. The most important is the **first one**–**Automatics**, i.e. **Easy** **Automatics**. The main goal is to understand the principle of “How it works”. That’s why I use intuition as much as possible. Even at the expense of simplifying the math. Understanding the topic is greatly facilitated by the animations, examples of which you can see on the right. Just click the** triangle video button**. Don’t worry about them for now. They are described in detail in the courses.**All courses are free.**

**Automatics**

That is the **flagship** of the site. Otherwise, **Easy** **Automatics**. The main advantage is the animations of time charts, **2** examples of which I have shown below.I modeled each experiment with **SCILAB** and then recorded it with **ActivePresenter** program as an **mp4** file. So the problem of knowing, installing **SCILAB** and its operation with different settings disappears. Just press the **video** button and watch the experiment. The note also applies to other courses. You will feel like an operator in the control room of the Refinery observing the technological process. Are you worried about the drop in distillate temperature? Fortunately, the temperature soon returned to normal. And this is simply the** PID** controller that compensates for the temperature drop with additional heating. I guarantee that you will know why the furnace tries to maintain the set temperature, despite the lump of ice thrown inside. Also the **P, I, D** components of the **PID** controller will become as obvious as riding a bicycle.

By clicking the **“Automatics”** title, you will go to** Chapter. 1 -Introduction**. All the chapters are roughly discussed here. **Note:**

You don’t have to use **Scilab**, a** Matlab-like** program. For some this is an advantage, for others not necessarily. The next course is **Scilab**. Once you know it, you can program it yourself in the so-called **Xcos** all the experiments you learned in** Automatics**.

There is also a version of the course with **Scilab** ->** https://iautomatyka.pl/kurs-regulacji-pid-wstep-cz-1-34 **. Unfortunately, only in Polish. There I briefly discussed the **Scilab**. You can also download ready-made **file.zcos** with all experiments from the Internet.

**Scilab**

**Vice-flagship** of the site. **Scilab** is a free program for solving various math problems. Equivalent to paid **Matlab**. Perfect for students of the universities science departments, polytechnics and even high school smart guys. Running any application, including **Scilab**, is not easy. It’s hard to describe how to enter to a specific place where you’ll be able to solve your **math problems**. For example **“How much is 2+2?”** The situation is different when I use the animation, an example of which is shown beside. If necessary, you can stop the animation or repeat it. I am an **automatics engineer**, so I devoted a lot of space to **Xcos**, which is part of **Scilab**. It is like a very shortened “**Automatics”** course. Here I analyze various **block diagrams** thanks to **Xcos**. Instead of tediously programming differential equations describing a given **Automatic Control System**, you simply draw a block diagram. Then you press the **“Start”** button and enjoy the viewed time course.

## Complex Numbers

as something needed for Fourier** Series and Transforms**.

**Fourier Series Classically**

As the title suggests.

**Rotating Fourier Series **

That is **Fourier Series** in a different way. You throw a periodic function **f(t)** into a centrifuge. And what comes out of it at the appropriate velocities **1ω0…, nω0**? Consecutive harmonics of course!… This approach is more intuitive than **Fourier Series Classic. **On the right side you see **2** animations with “centrifuges“. The **first** is when the centrifuge has a different pulsation **ω** than** ω** of the **f(t)** function in the “centrifuge”. In the **second** case, both pulsations **ω** are the same.

**Fourier Transform**

Most authors start with this. It does not say what the **Fourier Transform** is, but how it is calculated. It’s as if someone defined a **hammer** as a product that needs to be made in a certain way. And it should be. A **hammer** is a tool for driving nails, and the **Fourier Transform** is a method for the **distribution of harmonics** in the **f(t)** signal.

I’m thinking about the **Laplace Transform**. All in all, it would be a nice whole.

**How does CRC work?**

When the **2** networked computers conclude that the information received is not the same as the information sent, they repeat the transmission. That’s how the network works. Okay, but how do they know there’s been an error?***** One king send another king a very important letter that decided about war or peace. How can they be sure that the bribed messenger hasn’t changed a few but very important passages in the letter?

* Of course, I am not thinking about the trivial case when the receiver sees only bushes. But, for example, when one dot is missing or changed to another character from 100 uploaded pages.

**Cyclic Buffer**

A computer that wants to send a larger number of bytes first puts them into some area of memory. This relatively small memory can be, among others, **Cyclic Buffer**.

**Apitor Educational Robot **

How to start playing with the inexpensive educational robot **Apitor SuperBot**.

**Courses Navigation**

Now you are on the **home page** with short course descriptions. You can enter each **course** by clicking the large red **Article Title**, e.g. **Cyclic Buffer**. And in the course, to any chapter from the **table of contents**. You can always return from the course to the **home page** by clicking “**Easy automatics”** or **“Back to Courses”** in the heading.

### Example Animations

They are the main advantage of the courses. The time sequences that unfold before your eyes stimulate your imagination in a completely different way than ordinary drawings. They guarantee a quick entry into the world of automatics!

**Automatics**

**Response** of the **oscillatory** unit to a **unit** step

Click the triangle video key and watch the process.

Be patient, the experience lasts 1 minute.

**Comparison** of** P, PD, PI** and **PID** controls.

Note that **PD** control is remarkably better than **P** control, although both do not provide **zero error**. This is ensured by **PI** or** PID** control. Here too, **PID** is much better than **PI**.

**Scilab**A much shorter way to get to know

**Scilab**. Instead of tedious descriptions of the program, which button to press, how to set a parameter from a drop-down menu. all you need is an animation! Maybe it’s not very clear in the example below, because the screen is tiny, but the course itself is much better

How to create a simple program in Scilab?

**Rotating Fourier Series**They will make it easier for you to understand the rather abstract

**Complex Fourier Series**.

The function

**f(t)=0.5*sin(4*t)**pulsates at a speed of

**ω=4/sec**along the

**x-axis**of the

**x/y**plane just like

**b**. The plane itself rotates at a speed of

**ω=3/sec**and

**ω=4/sec,**as in

**a**. In this way,

**cycloids**will be created, as in

**c**. It will turn out that for each

**ω≠4/sec**of the centrifuge, the centers of gravity

**scn**of the resulting cycloids lie at

**(0,0)**, and only for

**ω=4/sec**( so as

**f(t)=0.5*sin(4*t)**)

**scn**isn’t

**(0,0)**! In this way, the harmonic of

**f(t)**can be

**extracted**.

The centrifuge with the function** f(t)** z rotates around the **center of gravity** **scn** of the resulting cycloid at a speed **ω=3/sec** different from **ω=4/sec** of the function **f(t)=0.5sin(4*t)**. The zero center **scn=(0,0)** means that the function **f(t)** does not contain a **harmonic** with pulsation **ω=3/sec**.

A centrifuge with function **f(t)** z rotates around the center of gravity **scn** at a speed **ω=4/sec** equal to **ω=4/sec** of the function **f(t)=0.5sin(4*t)**. The non-zero center **scn=(0.25,0)** means that the function **f(t)** contains a harmonic with pulsation **ω=4/sec**. From the parameter **scn=(0.25,0)** you can easily calculate **f(t)=0.5sin(4*t)**.**Note**

The circle at **c** appears stationary during the experiment. But they are drawn **8** times along the same tracks!

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